Listen to the Sound of Love Reinvented in ‘Oklahoma!’ (Headphones On)

Listen to the Sound of Love Reinvented in ‘Oklahoma!’ (Headphones On)


How do you make a classic song sound — and feel — totally different without changing its melody, harmony or a single word of its lyrics? How did this version of “People Will Say We’re in Love”

— become this one?

The 1943 Broadway hit “Oklahoma!” was a game-changer in many ways, including its unglamorized depiction of the American frontier and the violent death of a major character in the second act. The songs, developing the plot instead of distracting from it, helped establish the “integrated” musical that made Broadway’s Golden Age golden.

But one thing the composer Richard Rodgers and the librettist Oscar Hammerstein II, in their first collaboration, kept fairly traditional was the sound of the leading couple’s first duet: “People Will Say We’re in Love.” As originally written and performed, the bantering back-and-forth between the cowboy Curly and the ranch girl Laurey — a “list of don’ts” discreet lovers should live by — had the contours of old-fashioned operetta: coy, sweet, soaring.

Operetta was not what the director Daniel Fish had in mind when he conceptualized a revival of the musical that would expose its underlying danger and violence. His production’s focus on Laurey — and how her romantic choices reflect a woman’s limited powers in her era and perhaps ours — put particular pressure on “People Will Say We’re in Love” to express those themes.

As such, sweet and coy weren’t going to cut it. If the operetta style made sense in 1943 as a way of suggesting the world of 1906, something earthier and more immediately accessible was needed to match Mr. Fish’s interpretation decades later. For a production emphasizing sex, deprivation and loneliness, the sound of country and bluegrass music was a logical choice.

But the marching orders from the Rodgers and Hammerstein Organization, which controls the way “Oklahoma!” can be produced, were to leave the essential elements of the songs alone, meaning no alteration of melodies, harmonies or rhythms. Not that anyone wanted to change them; they’re basically unimprovable.

So how did a lush throwback like “People Will Say We’re in Love” become the sexy, stripped-down, countrified number being sung in the current revival and on its just-released cast album?

[Why did it take so long for a full recording? The many-decades odyssey to get “Oklahoma!” right.]

Enter the production’s orchestrator and music supervisor, Daniel Kluger. He and the music director, Nathan Koci, along with a group of instrumentalists who have been with the project for years, sought to build a totally new sound world on the sturdy armature of Rodgers’s music.

“When one set of variables is fixed,” Mr. Kluger said, “others come into play.”

Here are four of those variables — or as Hammerstein almost put it, a list of do’s for you.


The first musical difference you notice at Circle in the Square, where the revival is playing, is a visible one: The musicians aren’t in a pit but onstage with the actors, costumed as if for a hootenanny. There are also far fewer of them. Instead of the 28 players called for in Robert Russell Bennett’s original orchestrations — five woodwinds, seven brass, 13 strings, guitar, percussion and harp — there are now just seven, with no brass or woodwinds and only one violin, cello and bass.

The new instrumentation favors plucked and strummed sounds (like those made by banjo, mandolin and guitar) over smooth, legato sounds (like those made by clarinets, French horns and bowed violins). The overall effect is more like country music than operetta: dry and spare instead of sweet and smooth.

Listen to the opening notes of both versions of the song: four chords building to the first words of the introductory verse:

From the 1943 “Oklahoma!” cast album

So where the 1943 version has a full string section playing “arco” (with bows), the new version has the three string players playing pizzicato (with their fingertips), along with guitar, banjo and mandolin:

From the 2019 “Oklahoma!” revival

The attack suggests that the playful lyrics, in which Curly and Laurey accuse one another of overdoing their romantic gestures, will have a sharper edge than we’re used to. The plot bears that out, as the farmhand Jud Fry becomes dangerously fixated on Laurey. In this rendition, “People Will Say We’re in Love” is not just a love song in playful disguise, it’s a warning.

The new orchestration also connects the score to the prairie, with instruments ordinary people used to play in fiddle bands. The addition of a pedal steel guitar in Curly’s chorus, which he sings while playing an acoustic guitar onstage, amps up the bluegrass sound with its twangy accent.

From the 2019 “Oklahoma!” revival


In Rodgers’s manuscript both choruses of the song, one for Laurey and one for Curly, are notated in the key of C, probably because, with no flats or sharps, it’s the quickest way to get a draft down on paper. On the 1943 original cast recording and in the 1955 movie, Laurey sings hers a half tone up, in D flat. (The published version is another half tone up, in D.) Any of these keys puts the singer — Joan Roberts onstage, Shirley Jones in the movie — in a soprano sweet spot, with top notes that ring:

From the 1943 “Oklahoma!” cast album

Roberts soars to a sweet F on the 1943 original cast album. But for the current revival, Laurey’s chorus has been transposed down to the key of A Major, taking her into a smoky belt range that starts low and never gets above a C sharp:

From the 2019 “Oklahoma!” revival

In the lowered version, Ms. Jones never goes all-out soprano.

Without those high notes, and the ringing tone that comes with them, all traces of operetta are gone. There’s no more showing off for the audience or even for Curly; it’s as if Laurey has other things on her mind than making pretty sounds. She’s playful, but worried.

The opposite effect is achieved when Curly’s verse is abruptly restored to D flat, letting him sing like the glib and happy cowboy he is, mostly unaware of the danger ahead:

From the 2019 “Oklahoma!” revival

Even in the same key, the stupendous Alfred Drake, the original Curly, produced a totally different sound. He doesn’t sound like a cowboy; he sounds like a singer:

From the 1943 “Oklahoma!” cast album


For Roberts and for Drake, romantic words set at the top of a melody are opportunities for portamento: fainting fall-offs from higher notes to lower ones. Listen to her sing the word “bouquets”:

From the 1943 “Oklahoma!” cast album

And then to Drake matching her with “grand”:

From the 1943 “Oklahoma!” cast album

Because our ears today register such flourishes as operatic and old-fashioned, none are used in the current revival’s performances. Instead, Ms. Jones and Damon Daunno, as Curly, use country music tropes, including vertiginous pitch-bending, rhythmic stuttering and even cowboy-style yodeling to express desire, exuberance and the possibility of actual sex.

Here’s Ms. Jones, bending and swooping:

From the 2019 “Oklahoma!” revival

And Mr. Daunno, stuttering and yodeling:

From the 2019 “Oklahoma!” revival

Laurey and Curly are not, after all, singing about sharing a spot of tea. They want to get together before either of them reconsiders — or fate does.

Fills and Frills

What is the orchestra doing in the pauses between all this melody, while the singers catch their breath? It’s providing fills and frills — or at least it used to be. These were the figures, some written as integral parts of the music and some added by the orchestrator, that answered melodic phrases and seemed to form a dialogue with them.

One that Rodgers wrote himself — you can see it in his manuscript — is the fill after each statement of the main melody, answering Hammerstein phrases like “Don’t throw bouquets at me.”

In the movie, led by the flute, these figures sound graceful and dainty:

From the soundtrack to the 1955 “Oklahoma!” film

But in the revival’s orchestration the figure, led by a plucked violin, it sounds plain and flinty: a bare-bones figure as arid as the prairie.

From the 2019 “Oklahoma!” revival

Same notes, different sound.

That feeling of isolation is further enhanced by the isolation of the voice throughout the show. Whereas traditional arrangements, including Bennett’s, usually “double” the vocal melody in the orchestra, there usually aren’t enough players in this revival to do that. Which is only fitting: Loneliness is a key theme in the story. (Jud Fry’s solo is called “Lonely Room.”) And Laurey is an orphan.

None of this is to say that “Oklahoma!” can never again be performed in the style Rodgers and Hammerstein originally imagined for it. The songs are capacious enough even to return to operetta someday.

Strong enough, too: Stripping them of the trappings of gorgeousness doesn’t denature them. It reminds you that “Oklahoma!” was groundbreaking not because it was so pretty. It was groundbreaking because that prettiness was built on an understanding of characters for whom even prettiness — even love — was a luxury.

1943/2019 cast recordings courtesy of Decca Records. Video courtesy of Broadway production.

Jesse Green is the co-chief theater critic. Before joining The Times in 2017, he was the theater critic for New York magazine and a contributing editor. He is the author of a novel, “O Beautiful,” and a memoir, “The Velveteen Father.” @JesseKGreen Facebook

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